“An Investigation Into the Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in a Personal Selling Context.”Journal of Marketing 61 (July): 85–98. Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. Bentler, Peter M. 1990. Transformational Leadership. Transformational leadership and employee well-being: the mediating role of trust in the leader and self-efficacy. doi: 10.2307/30040662, Shin, S. J., and Zhou, J. Finally, innovation, compared to goal, value orientation increased cognitive identification, while goal orientation facilitated affective, rather than cognitive, identification. Means, Standard Deviations, Cronbach's alphas, and correlations among all relevant variables. J. “The Visionary Leader.” InCharismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness Eds. 1990. Existing concepts mainly reflect traditional understandings of the leader-follower relationship, focusing on individual behaviors and positional power[12]. “Relative Importance of Key Job Dimensions and Leadership Behaviors in Motivating Salesperson Work Performance.”Journal of Marketing 49 (Summer): 76–86. 34, 487–516. 96, 677–694. 77, 171–191. 1992.Charisma and Leadership in Organizations. The conceptual elaboration and empirical support of the proposed research hypotheses on the grounds of correlational data did offer higher ecological validity of the findings, and certainly facilitated the unraveling of causal relationships. doi: 10.1002/job.111, Hamstra, M. R. W., Van Yperen, N. W., Wisse, B., and Sassenberg, K. (2014). Jaworski, Bernard and Ajay K. Kohli. doi: 10.1002/job.499, Blader, S. L., and Tyler, T. R. (2009). According to these criteria, six applicants had to be excluded from study entry. Module two tested the participants’ leadership behavior in one of four standardized five-minute scenarios in a simulation-based environment. Bus. J. Appl. Conger, Jay A. and Rabindra N. Kanungo. Transformational leadership was expected to be positively related to cognitive and affective identification. As hypothesized, after four weeks of training, the Performance Scale increased 15% in transactional leadership skill performance (2.10 to 2.86) (intervention effect, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.13; P< .001, eta2 = 0.31) and 14% in transformational leadership skill performance (2.26 to 2.94) (intervention effect, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.27 to 1.09; P< .001, eta2 = 0.22). doi: 10.1002/job.362, Howell, J. M., and Avolio, B. J. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Passive leadership was only assessed prior to the training by the participants themselves. Study 2 aimed to provide a first step in a more elaborate test of the research hypotheses by implementing a causal mediation design. Groups differed significantly in a-priori (F(1,69) = 17.17, P< .001, eta2 = 0.20) and post-test leadership knowledge (F(1,69) = 15.51, P< .001, eta2 = 0.19). Therefore, in Study 2 transformational leadership and transactional contingent reward were treated as independent variables and their causal effect on perceptions of value orientations was measured. Hayes, A. F. (2013). 7, 385–425. Soc. J. (2005). We are grateful to the following individuals, who participated and were compensated for participation in this study: Research assistants: Sabrina Reif (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich), Actresses: Eva-Maria Kerp, Tamara Mayer (Klinikum der Universität), Independent evaluators: Christian Strobel (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich), Hannah Freienstein (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich). doi: 10.2307/3069307, Effelsberg, D., Solga, M., and Gurt, J. doi: 10.1177/1548051808324100. In other words, members' feelings of affective identification with the employing organization are shaped by the evaluation of the resources and rewards that the organization offers to its employees through the transactional style of leadership possibly associated with perceptions of justice and equality. Received: 04 June 2017; Accepted: 22 September 2017; Published: 18 October 2017. A., Field, H. S., and Mossholder, K. W. (2013). The IMPACT leadership training was conducted over four consecutive weeks, with two-and-a-half hour sessions once a week after clinical duties. “Supervisory Behavior, Role Stress, and the Job Satisfaction of Industrial Sales People.”Journal of Marketing Research 20 (February): 84–91. 44, 643–656. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ethical committee of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich. Funding acquisition, J. Appl. Q. Overall, our study would have benefited from a larger sample size, especially in the control group. Psychol. 8:1754. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01754. Walz, Sarah M. and Brian P. Niehoff. In the control group, only the secondary outcome was assessed pre-to-post-test within a four week interval, as residents of the control group did not receive any role-play intervention. These findings are also in line with those reported by Tyler and Blader (2003) and Blader and Tyler (2009) showing that the level of resources that employees receive from the organization shaped organizational identity, which, in turn, was related to extra-role behavior integrating the social identity and the social exchange perspectives. Spencer et al. A culture orientation promoting goal setting, achievement, and contingent reward is a path through which transactional leaders help employees develop positive feelings toward the employing organization. Behav. 1968.Managerial Attitudes and Performance. video coding), rated the primary outcome. Q. 81, 241–248. 8, 569–581. Transactional leadership behaviors were shown to further enhance the emotional bonding between individual employees and their organization beyond the positive effect of transformational leadership behaviors. Organizational cultures are contextual factors that have a profound influence on the emergence and effectiveness of leadership in organizational settings, especially as organizations grow and become differentiated by various divisions and departments.

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